Three-way switches have 3 terminals to carry circuit electricity and one terminal for a ground wire. Of the three circuit terminals, one is called the common and the other two are known as travelers. The common terminal may be labeled and is usually a different color than the traveler terminals.
At SW1 the white wire is wrapped with black tape and run through to the common on SW2 using the white wire at each switch. At the lights the white wire from SW2 is spliced to the hot terminal on each fixture. The black and red wires running between the switches serve as the travelers for the circuit. At the 4 way the travelers from SW1 connect to T1 and T2 connect to the travelers for SW2.
If your switches stop working they may be worn out or the screws may have come loose. If you’ve wired a new switch correctly and the circuit still doesn’t work, the switch may be defective. Check that all connections are tight. Check the switch, remove it from the circuit and test for failure with a continuity tester or multimeter set on the Ohms setting.
A 3-wire cable runs from L1 to L2, 2-wire cable runs from there to the first switch, and 3-wire cable runs between SW1 and SW2. The source hot is spliced to the black wire running between the lights and at the last light, it is spliced to the black wire running through to the common on SW1. The white wire is marked black and spliced to the black wire running to the common on SW2.
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